Principles for System Reliability: Generation, Transmission, and Critical Decision Making

Course overview

This NERC CEH training class teaches the basic principles of electric generation and transmission, reviews selected NERC Reliability Standards that govern generator and transmission operations, and study the capabilities of generation and transmission facilities and their effects on emergency conditions. Principles for System Reliability uses the proprietary power system simulator to help students visualize, monitor, and control a complex system. During simulation, specific operating principles, communication practices, and decision-making processes are reviewed, discussed, and practiced to reinforce each student’s understanding.

Topics include:

  • Generation operations basic principles
  • NERC standards, Transmission Operators, and transmission facilities
  • Voltage collapse, angle instability, multiple contingencies, and incorrect relay operations
  • Power system components
  • Switching operations
  • Voltage collapse
  • Manual load shedding
  • Island scenarios

Learning objectives:

  • Recall how relays protect system components
  • Recall the importance of voltage and control equipment
  • Recall why a power system needs both active power (watts) and reactive power (VAR)
  • Match voltage, current, and power waveforms to their associated phasor diagrams
  • Identify the significance of the power factor and power triangle and how they are affected during normal and emergency conditions
  • Recall how the MW and MVAR output of a generator is adjusted and the factor that move it through the system during normal and emergency conditions
  • Recall the reasons for limiting generator MW and MVAR output and how this affects normal and emergency operations
  • Recall why generators must “move” in response to system conditions such as load following and frequency regulation during normal and emergency conditions
  • Identify emergency situations caused by voltage collapse, multiple contingencies (including sabotage), and incorrect relay operations
  • Recall how to communicate effectively and accurately with all team members during a power system emergency
  • Identify the major components of a power system
  • Identify potential problem areas and situations in a power system
  • Perform basic switching operations safely and reliably, such as transferring equipment and opening and restoring lines
  • Recall how to maintain and monitor MVA flows using MW controls within system operating and interconnection reliability limits
  • Recall how voltage collapse occurs
  • Recall several methods of avoiding voltage collapse under various contingencies, including a description of how components of the power system respond differently to normal and emergency conditions
  • Recall how to implement manual load shedding to prevent system emergencies in compliance with NERC reliability standards
  • Recall the function and operation of the generator excitation system in voltage and VAR control on the power system during normal and emergency conditions
  • Identify the role of the power plant and other controls during a capacity or energy emergency
  • Identify the function of a power substation including its common voltage levels and several types of substation equipment
  • List the purpose and basic operating characteristics of each major type of equipment in a power substation
  • State the importance of substation systems, such as station light and power, the DC system, and alarm system
  • List the common substation bus arrangements and compare their advantages and disadvantages with respect to reliable operations
  • List the electrical characteristics of a transmission line and its effect on the power system during normal and emergency conditions
  • Recall how a transmission line can operate as either a VAR source or a VAR sink, depending on loading conditions during normal and emergency conditions
  • State the significance of surge impedance loading (SIL)
  • Operate the Electric Grid Simulator to identify and resolve simulated power system emergencies
  • Identify how to analyze and respond to major disturbances in a power system
  • Identify the cause of a blackout
  • Recall correct usage of system operation techniques to survive the most severe single contingency and probable multiple contingencies
  • List and describe the major factors limiting a transmission line’s ability to carry load and recall NERC SOLs during normal and emergency conditions
  • Identify the consequences of operating transmission lines at heavy loading and the effect of small load increments on VAR demand and voltage levels during normal and emergency conditions
  • Recall the purpose of P-V and V-Q curves and state the significance of the “knee” of the curve during normal and emergency conditions
  • Identify the general mechanisms of voltage and angle instability, including risk factors and equipment operation that may contribute to instability during normal and emergency conditions
  • Apply recognition-primed decision-making techniques when evaluating power system emergencies in a team environment
  • Identify roles and responsibilities of a Reliability Coordinator, Transmission Operator, Generator Operator, and Balancing Authority during a power system emergency
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